Sample IP Rating

IP

6

8

“Ingress Protection”
First Digit: Solids Protection
Second Digit: Liquids Protection

 

Ingress Protection (IP) and what it means

The IP Code (or International Protection Rating, sometimes also interpreted as Ingress Protection Rating*) consists of the letters IP followed by two digits and an optional letter. As defined in international standard IEC 60529, it classifies the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water in electrical enclosures. The standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof.

The digits (characteristic numerals) indicate conformity with the conditions summarized in the tables below. For example, an electrical socket rated IP22 is protected against insertion of fingers and will not be damaged or become unsafe during a specified test in which it is exposed to vertically or nearly vertically dripping water. IP22 or 2X are typical minimum requirements for the design of electrical accessories for indoor use.

*Explanation of the letters IP is given in IEC 60529 (Ed. 2.1), clause 4.1

First Digit: Solids

The first digit indicates the level of protection that the enclosure provides against access to hazardous parts (e.g., electrical conductors, moving parts) and the ingress of solid foreign objects.

Level

Object size protected against

Effective against

0 Not protected
No protection against contact and ingress of objects
1
>50mm
Any large surface of the body, such as the back of the hand, but no protection against deliberate contact with a body part.
2
>12.5mm
Fingers or similar objects.
3
>2.5mm
Tools, thick wires, etc.
4
>1mm
Most wires, screws, etc.
5
Dust Protected
Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment; complete protection against contact.
6
Dust Tight
No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact.

 

 

Second Digit: Liquids

Protection of the equipment inside the enclosure against harmful ingress of water.

Level

Object size protected against

Effective against

0

Not protected

-

1

Dripping water

Dripping water (vertically falling drops) shall have no harmfull effect.

2

Dripping water when tilted up to 15°

Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect when the enclosure is tilted at an angle up to 15° from its normal position.

3

Spraying water

Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60° from the vertical shall have no harmful effect.

4

Splashing water

Water splashing against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effect.

5

Water jets

Water projected by a nozzle (6.3mm) against enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

6

Powerful water jets

Water projected in powerful jets (12.5mm nozzle) against the enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.

7

Immersion up to 1m

Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of submersion).

8

Immersion beyond 1m

The equipment is suitable for continuous immersion in water under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer. Normally, this will mean that the equipment is hermetically sealed. However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water can enter but only in such a manner that it produces no harmful effects.

References

1. IEC 60529, “degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures (IP Codes),” Ed. 2.1 (Geneva: International Electrotechnical Commision, 2011)

2. IEC 60529 (Ed. 2.1), clause 4.1.

 


 

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